Foreign Cultural Tourists' Spiritual Perception Factors from Travel to Isfahan

Document Type : Case Studies


1 Tourism Department, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran

2 University of Central Lancashire, UK

3 Faculty of Tourism Sciences, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran



Human beings take a step in the path of discovery and searching the universe. Meanwhile, travel is one of the means of searching wisdom and experience for communicating with the land, nature and the world’s creator, as well as finding meaning and concept of life. Therefore, humans understand travel as a source of perception and take benefits from it for recognizing themselves and the universe. The term "spiritual perception" is defined as a way for understanding and interpreting all non-material affairs related to the origin of human soul which has been investigated in this research. In this regarda qualitative-quantitative method has been applied in which the spiritual perception factors were obtained by using concept analysis method after conducting deep interviews with experts. Four factors of human hypothesis, spiritual truth, outward truth and human interaction were considered. Study population consisted of foreign cultural tourists travelling to the City of Isfahan from March to June 2018.  Gathered data was analyzed by using structural equation and Smart PLS. The results showed that all the hypotheses of research were confirmed and there were meaningful relationships among tourists' spiritual perception and mentioned factors.


Ambroz M., & Orsenic R., (2011). Tourist origin of spiritual motives. Management: journal of contemporary management issues, 16(2), 71-86.
Azmi, A., Shuhada Ngadi N., & Ngelambong, A. (2015). “Tourists’ Perceptions towards Cultural Tourism Development in Kraton, Yogyakarta”. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences, 5(6S), 79-83.
Borchert, D. M. (1996). The Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Thomson Gale/Macmillan Reference USA.
Carmody, J., Reed, G., Kristeller, J., & Merriam, P. (2008). “Mindfulness, spirituality, and health-related symptoms”. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64(4), 393-403.
Gerald, F., Canvash, U., Mark, R. Bandsuch, (2002). “Virtue as a bench mark for 125 spirituality in business”. Journal of Business Ethics, 38,109-117.
Chan, M. F., Chung, L. Y. F., Lee, A. S., Wong, W. K., Lee, G. S. C., Lau, C. Y., ... & Ng, J. W. S. (2006). Investigating Spiritual Care Perception and Predict Patterns in Hong Kong Nurses: results of a cluster analysis. Nurse Education Today, 26(2), 139-150..
Haq, F., Newby, L., & Jackson, J. (2009). “Segmentation of the spiritual tourism market”. ANZMAC: Australian & New Zealand Marketing Academy -Conference, Crown Promenade, Melbourne, 30 November -2 December 2009 / URL:
Jarratt, D. (2013). A socio-cultural analysis of the traditional seaside resort and its contemporary meaning to tourists with specific reference to Morecambe, U.K. A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Central Lancashire (UCLan).
Jarratt, D. (2015). “Sense of place at a British coastal resort: Exploring ‘seasideness’ in Morecambe”. Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 63(3), 351-363.
Jesurajan, S. A. V., & Prabhu, S. V. (2012). “Dimensions of Spiritual Tourism in Tuiticorin District of Tamil Nadu in India - A Critical Analysis”. Business Intelligence Journal, 5(2), 245-251.
Kim, H., Borges, M. C., & Chon, J. (2006). “Impacts of environmental values on tourism motivation: The case of FICA, Brazil”. Tourism Management, 27(5), 957–967.
Isaac, R. (2008). Understanding the Behaviour of Cultural Tourists. Science Guide.
Klein, N. (2016). “Prosocial behavior increases perceptions of meaning in life”. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 12(4), 354-361.
Miner-Williams, D. (2006). “Putting a puzzle together: Making spirituality meaningful for nursing using an evolving theoretical framework”. Journal of Clinical Nursing Science Quarterly, 15(7), 811–821.
Mueller, P. S., Plevak, D. J., & Rummans, T. A. (2001). Religious involvement, spirituality, and medicine: Implications for clinical practice. In Mayo clinic proceedings (Vol. 76, No. 12, pp. 1225-1235). Elsevier.
Nazem, G., & Mohamed, B. (2016). “Understanding Medical Tourists’ Perception of Private Hospital Service Quality in Penang Island”. Asian Culture and History, 8(1), 100.
Neck, C., & Milliman, J. (1994). “Thought self-leadership: finding spiritual fulfillment in organizational life”. Journal of managerial psychology, 9(6), 9-16.
OECD (2009). The Impact of Culture on Tourism.
Petroman, I., Cornelia, P., Diana, M., Ramona, C., Loredana, V., & Ioana, P. (2013). “Types of Cultural Tourism”. Scientific Papers: Animal Science and Biotechnologies, 46(1).
Ramdas, M., & Mohamed, B. (2014). “Visitor Perceptions on the Impacts of Tourism Activities, Development and Infrastructure on the Environment of Perhentian Islands”. In SHS Web of Conferences (Vol. 12, p. 01081). EDP Sciences.
Schwartz, S. (1994). “Are there universal aspects in the structure and contents of human values?”. Journal of Social Issues, 50(4), 19–45.
Spencer, M. K. (2016). “The Phenomenology and Metaphysics of Spiritual Perception: A Thomistic Framework”. New Black Friars, 97(1072), 677-692.
Srisawad, P., & Ounvichit, T. (2016). “Innovating a constructivist learning model to instill cultural diversity respect into youths in a Thai tourism community”. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 37(2), 88-92.
Stranahan, S. (2001). “Spiritual Perception, Attitudes about Spiritual Care, and Spiritual Care Practices among Nurse Practitioners”. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 23(1), 90-104.
Tanyi, R. A. (2002). “Towards clarification of the meaning of spirituality”. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 39(5), 500–509.
Willson, G. B., McIntosh, A. J., & Zahra, A. L. (2013). “Tourism and Spirituality: A Phenomenological Analysis”. Annals of Tourism Research, 42, 150-168.
Yun, D., MacDonald, R. M., MacEachern, M., & Hennessey, S. (2008). Typology of Cultural Tourists: An Island Study. Refereed papers from the 3rd International Small Island Cultures Conference Institute of Island Studies, University of PEI, June 29–July 2.
Zhang, S., & Chan, C. S. (2016). “Nature-based tourism development in Hong Kong: Importance–Performance perceptions of local residents and tourists”. Tourism Management Perspectives, 20, 38–46.